Though MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureaus) is resistant to mehticillin (which is no longer produced) and the closely related antibiotic, penicillin, there are antibiotics that are still effective in treatment.
It is a challenging type of staph infection because Staphylococcus aureaus is known for its ability to adapt and mutate into resistant strains. Some antibiotics are only used for treating this infection to avoid resistant strains from developing.
There is concern that VRSA (vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureaus) will develop due to the frequent use of vancomycin, an effective antibiotic in treating MRSA.
There are several antibiotics that are used to treat MRSA. Swabbing the area, a biopsy, a blood test, or a DNA test will be done to determine the specific strain and the best antibiotics to use. In addition to vancomycin, the following are also used.
- Tetracycline-(Sumycin, Terramycin, Tetracyn, and Panmycin)-broad spectrum polyketide antibiotic, Tetracycline-ABC has enhanced physical transportation of the antibiotic
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Bactrim DS, Septra, Septra DS)-is a sulfonamide antibiotic, effective in Hospital Acquired
- Doxycycline (Monodox, Microdox, Periostat, Vibrox, Adoxa, Doxyhexal, Doxylin)-is a broad spectrum antibiotic, it is a semi-synthetic tetracycline
- Clindamycin (Dalacin)-it is a is a lincosamide antibiotic, stops or slows the growth of bacteria
- Daptomycin (Cubicin)-it is a novel lipopeptide antibiotic, it is a naturally occurring compound found in soil
- Linezolid (Zyvox)-it is a synthetic antibiotic, it is a very expensive treatment
- Minocycline (Minocyn)-it is a bacteriostatic antibiotic, long-acting type of antibiotic
The antibiotic that is chosen for MRSA treatment will depend on the specific strain that is causing the infection.
Antibiotics may be administered orally, topically, or intravenously. Early detection of MRSA will make treatment easier and more effective. Once the infection has spread, antibiotics may need to be administered by a pump, which will provide consistent dosing of the drug. Hospitalization may be required to treat and monitor the patient. Proper administration of the correct antibiotic is essential to avoid life threatening side affects. Antibiotics will need to be taken for its full course to avoid more resistant and stronger bacteria surviving and re-infecting a patient with a worse case of MRSA.
Bacteria Resistant To Antibiotics
When a bacteria, like Staphylococcus aureaus, becomes resistant to a specific antibiotic it is because this bacteria is highly adaptable and able to easily mutate to survive. The overuse of antibiotics, over the counter/professional antibiotic products, and not taking an antibiotic the full cycle are contributing factors to the bacteria surviving, mutating, and growing. Some feel that immune systems are not able to build resistance to bacteria because of overly sanitized environments, which eliminate natural exposure to bacteria. In healthy people, the exposure can build immunities, similar in the way that immunizations work, but instead of injecting the bacteria, the bacteria are naturally introduced during daily activities.
Being aware of the MRSA Symptoms will assure it is diagnosed early so that treatment can start promptly. Early treatment and the administration of antibiotics for this infection reduces the risk of it to spread and increases survival rates.